A dog scratching its self


Controlling Fleas & Ticks

The word pest derives from the Latin word pastis meaning “plague”. This is a very appropriate term for insects that spread disease. In our May blog we covered the dangers of mosquitos and heartworm disease in pets. This month we are covering fleas and ticks. They, like the mosquito, become more abundant in warmer weather. But the most important factor is that they can cause your pet to become ill. These pests can be found in the fur of many pets such as dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, mice, etc. 



Fleas are brown or reddish-brown insects that have flat bodies and feed by sucking blood from animals and humans, causing itchy bites. They are very small (about 3 mm long). Although fleas are tiny, they can make your pet’s life miserable. Once on your pet, fleas can bite up to every 5 minutes leaving your pet itchy, sore, and uncomfortable. Even just one bite can cause an allergic reaction in a pet.

One of the most amazing but frustrating things about fleas is their ability to jump. A flea can jump up to 7 inches vertically and 13 inches horizontally. Relative to its size, the flea is one of the best jumpers of all animals.

How do you know if your pet has fleas?

  • Little dark spots that move in the fur.
  • Small black particles (flea droppings, also called flea dirt). An easy way to spot these is by using a flea comb. Comb your pet’s fur with the flea comb and wipe the comb through a wet paper towel. When the flea dirt gets wet it turns a reddish or brown color. This is from the digested blood of your pet that the fleas excrete.
  • Your pet is scratching more than normal. Just like humans, pets will scratch from time to time. But if your pet is frequently scratching, they may have fleas.
  • Reddened patches and irritation on your pet’s skin.

How does your pet get fleas?


The most likely way your pet will get fleas is through exposure from other animals. Fleas can easily jump onto your pet from other animals. Opossums, raccoons, squirrels, and rats are known to carry fleas that can infest your pet. However, wild animals don’t have to have direct contact with your pet to transmit fleas. Fleas lay eggs on their host. These eggs can drop off the host and into your yard. The eggs hatch and the flea larvae develop hidden in the grass or duff (decaying leaves and branches) outside. The larvae then become pupa as in the picture above. Then as adults, they wait for an animal to pass by and jump on.

Importance of Treating Your Pet for Fleas

Fleas can cause a host of problems in pets:

  • Persistent scratching, over-grooming, and skin infections.
  • Anemia. For example, small cats or kittens that are heavily infested can lose so much blood to the biting fleas and ticks that they become anemic. It can become so severe that the cat can die.
  • Tapeworms
  • Bacterial diseases, e.g. bubonic plague
  • Hookworms


Ticks are commonly thought of as insects. They are actually arachnids. They have eight legs and highly developed mouth parts that can pierce the skin of your pet and feed on their blood. Depending on the type of tick, they may be different in colors such as grey, brown, black, reddish-brown, or yellow. They feed on blood to survive and produce eggs. The eggs develop into larvae, then nymphs, and finally, adult ticks. Tick larvae are very small (the size of a grain of sand). An adult tick can start very small (e.g. the size of an apple seed). But as they feed off a pet they grow in size.

How do pets get ticks?

Ticks are most commonly found outdoors in leaf litter, shrubs, or bushes. Ticks also exist in non-wooded areas and can be found in tall grasses. Ticks grab on and cling to passing animals.

It is important to check your pet for ticks after you’ve spent any time outdoors. If you feel a small bump on your pet, be sure to part your pet’s fur and take a closer look. Unfortunately, it is not always easy to spot a tick in your pet’s fur. Some other signs your pet might have a tick:

  • You find a tick in your home.
    If you see a tick in your bedsheets, carpet, or on the floor, this is a sign that a member of your family or your pet may have brought a tick into the house. Be sure to do a closer examination of your pet’s fur.
  • Your pet is shaking its head a lot.
    Ticks like to attach to moist environments, and are many times found around the ears of a pet. If your pet is shaking its head excessively, have a closer look at its head and inside its ears.
  • You find scabs on your pet.
    Ticks bite and feed on blood. If the tick detaches or is removed by your pet licking or scratching, a scab may form. Take a closer look at any unexplained scabs you notice on your pet’s body.
  • Your pet has symptoms of a tick bite.
    If your pet has a fever or experiences fatigue, loss of appetite, vomiting, lameness, or other unusual symptoms this may indicate that your pet has been infected by a tick-transmitted disease. In some cases, reactions to ticks can be life-threatening. Therefore, if you notice any unusual symptoms call your vet immediately.


If your pet already has a flea infestation there are several steps you will need to take to get rid of the fleas:

  1. Treat Your Pet. Contact your veterinarian and find out the right treatment for your pet.  Protecting all pets in the home is the most critical step in eliminating fleas. 
  2. Use a powerful vacuum. Vacuum floors, upholstery, and mattresses. Cracks and other tight spaces are usually good hiding places for fleas and their eggs, larvae, and cocoons. If you can, use a vacuum with a bag you can dispose of without coming into contact with its contents.
  3. Use a steam cleaner for carpets and upholstery, including pet beds. The combination of high heat and soap is the enemy of fleas in all stages of life. Pay special attention to any hot spots where your pet usually lies down.
  4. Wash all bedding, including your pet’s, in hot water. Dry it at the highest heat setting. If the infestation is severe, consider getting rid of old bedding and starting anew.
  5. Use premise sprays.   Premise sprays can be used to treat furniture, carpet, and hard to treat areas and can have a residual effect for several months.  Lawn treatment can also help to eliminate flea infestations.  


Remove the tick as soon as possible

  1. Use fine-tipped tweezers to grasp the tick as close to the skin as you can.
  2. Pull in the direction the ticks body lies with steady, even pressure. Don’t twist or jerk the tick.
  3. After removing the tick, clean the bite area and your hands with rubbing alcohol or soap and water.
  4. Place the tick in a plastic bag with alcohol (to kill it). If your pet gets ill you may need to show the tick to your veterinarian so they can see what type of tick bit your pet. 

Watch for any of the above tick bite symptoms and if any, contact your veterinarian.

Fortunately most tick-borne illnesses respond quickly and completely to a course of antibiotics, so prompt veterinary attention is best for your pet.


The best treatment for fleas and ticks is PREVENTATIVE treatment. There are various brands of treatment that cover both fleas and ticks. 

*Important note: make sure you get the right treatment for your pet, especially for your pet’s weight. For example, using flea treatment meant for a dog on a cat or giving too high a dose to an animal can be fatal. Check with your veterinarian so you can be sure you are using the right treatment.

We provide treatment and medications for fleas and ticks tailored to your pet and your lifestyle. If you have any questions or concerns regarding your pet please contact us at Advanced Pet Care Clinic.  


Dr. Tammy Stevenson